The Spirit of the Day

Meredith Kline, in Images of the Spirit, has a wonderful exposition of the post-fall encounter of Adam and Eve with God. They had eaten of the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil; their eyes were opened and they sewed fig leaves together to cover their nakedness. The KJV (most other English versions are similar) renders the next verse: And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden. The mental picture is often that of God in human form, perhaps the pre-incarnate Christ, strolling through the garden, taking in the fresh air. The discovery and judgment of Adam and Eve’s disobedience is cast as merely coincidental to this evening walk. Kline proposes another picture.

They heard the voice of the LORD God. This word voice (qol in Hebrew) isn’t limited to vocal sound. It can mean a cry, call, proclamation, and also a noise, thunder, or sound in general. In manifestations of God’s presence, it is prominent, usually an overwhelming sound as of thunder, a multitude, an army, or many waters. In the descent on Mount Sinai the voice came in thunder and the sound of a trumpet that grew so loud it shook the mountain and the people begged that no further word be spoken (Ex. 20:18-19, see also Heb 12:18-21). Before they entered the land, Moses reminded the people that when God had spoken to them out of the fire, they heard the voice only; there was no image—the sound was the primary or focal element of the experience (Deut. 4:12). The presence of God came to David as the sound of an army advancing above (2 Sam. 5:24). David highlights the powerful and awe-inspiring qol of the Lord in Psalm 29:

  The qol of the LORD is upon the waters:
    the God of glory thundereth:
  the LORD is upon many waters.
  The qol of the LORD is powerful;
    the voice of the LORD is full of majesty.
  The qol of the LORD breaketh the cedars;
    yea, the LORD breaketh the cedars of Lebanon…
  The qol of the LORD divideth the flames of fire.
  The qol of the LORD shaketh the wilderness;
    the LORD shaketh the wilderness of Kadesh.
  The qol of the LORD maketh the hinds to calve,
    and discovereth the forests:
    and in his temple doth every one speak of his glory.

Isaiah is given a vision of God coming in judgment against the city of David with thunder, and with earthquake, and great noise, with storm and tempest, and the flame of devouring fire (Isa. 29:6, see also Jer. 25:29-31). But when God fights for mount Zion, he roars like a young lion (Isa. 31:4). When Ezekiel is brought into the presence of God, the sound of God’s coming in his living throne-chariot is like great waters, like the voice of the Almighty, the sound of an army (Ez. 1:24). The first thing John encounters in the Revelation of Jesus Christ is a great voice like a trumpet behind him (Rev. 1:10). The sound of God’s coming in the garden should be understood along these lines, a great and thunderous sound, the approach of the living God.

Walking in the garden in the cool of the day. The Hebrew verb halak is most often translated go or walk, both of which are good and appropriate. The main idea is the act of moving from one place to another, or through or over a place. This broader idea, rather than the more specific walking fits better here, as should be evident when the whole is taken together.

It is cool of the day that is the primary problem spot in most English renderings. The Hebrew is ruach ha yom, an odd and unique phrase in scripture. Ruach has the same basic range of meaning as the Latin anima (where we get animated, inanimate): breath, spirit, life, wind. A few English translations have breeze, which gets a little closer to the idea. Even better would be to link it with the ruach elohim already seen in 1:2 moving upon the face of the waters. But how would that be better? What would it mean that God was moving through the garden in the spirit of the day?

It was God the Spirit who brought forth the light of day at the beginning of creation. It was not the light of the sun, moon, and stars—they were formed later to correspond to the light that proceeded forth from God, the same fiery light that is seen in the glory cloud in later manifestations throughout scripture. By that light he evaluated his work at the end of each day, pronouncing judgment: He saw that it was good; in other words, the work had been accomplished according to his decree. Often the Spirit empowers human agents to carry out his judgment in the world. The Spirit comes upon the judges of Israel so that they are able to execute the judgment of God on the oppressors (3:10; see also 6:34, 11:29, 14:19, 15:14, 20; 1 Sam. 11:6, 16:13). Likewise in Isaiah, under the glory-cloud as a “spirit of judgment” and a “spirit of burning”, Jerusalem is purged of her blood and filth (Isa. 4:4-6). The Spirit of God rests upon the branch, the son of Jesse, to judge rightly the poor, the meek, and the wicked (11:1ff). In chapter 28, Isaiah talks of a day coming when God will be “a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judgment” against the rulers, priests, and prophets who have stumbled out of the way by wine and strong drink. God puts his Spirit on his Servant to bring judgment to the nations, judgment unto truth to the whole earth (42:1ff). The passage in Isaiah that Jesus finds and reads in the synagogue carries the same theme, “The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me…” The first part, Jesus said, was fulfilled in their hearing. He stopped before “and the day of vengeance of our God.” That was not his mission in the flesh, but was to come.

It is not explicit in the Genesis account how long after creation man transgressed, but there is no indication of time passing (the fact that Adam did not know his wife until after they left the garden is a clue that the fall happened almost immediately). In the first chapter, the narrative shows that man is made on the sixth day, and next day, the seventh, is blessed by God and made holy; it is the day of rest. This is the Sabbath day, the Lord’s Day. In the second chapter, more detail is given about the sixth day and the creation of man and formation of woman. Then follows God’s coming into the garden to evaluate man’s work and bring judgment, for good or bad. This is judgment day, the Day of the Lord. The two phrases in English are only one phrase in both Hebrew and Greek; the Lord’s Day is the Day of the Lord. The blessed and holy day, the day when God takes his rest is the day he evaluates all the work done in creation. This is exactly what is happening here. The man and his wife have eaten from the forbidden tree and God has come to evaluate their work and pass judgment on them and the serpent. It is no wonder they fled from his presence and tried to hide themselves when they heard him coming. It wasn’t guilt or shame only. They heard the thunderous, terrifying sound of God moving through the garden as the Spirit of the Day.

In the Day You Eat

God had said in the day you eat of [the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil], you shall surely die. They ate and didn’t die, not in that day. Their eyes were opened, they became like God, knowing good and evil. All this is even confirmed by God. It seems the serpent told no lie at all. What happened?

Part of it may be their exile, which is a kind of picture of death. Perhaps in the same way that a branch cut from a tree does not immediately look dead, but being cut off from its source of life, it really no longer lives, so Adam and Eve, being cut off from the Tree of Life no longer really lived. Maybe. But they never ate from that tree. It wasn’t their source of life. God breathed into the man’s nostrils the breath of life and he became a living creature. Still, they were cut off from the sanctuary, from the presence of God.

A case can also be made out of the Hebrew grammatical construction. A stricter translation would read something more like in the day you eat of it, dying you shall die. Eating the fruit begins the process of ageing, decay, and death. The rest of their days would be a slow decline toward death. Dying, the process, you shall die, the end. This is certainly what we experience, and as far as that goes is good and true. I’m not sure the Hebrew is meant this way, though. This kind of construction is used throughout scripture for emphasis, as in the immediately preceding verse you may freely eat, or, eating you may eat—which is why nearly every English translation renders it you shall surely (or certainly) die.


A more complete answer might be found by digging into verse 21: And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins and clothed them. Where did the skins come from? An animal or animals had to die to provide the covering for them. This covering was given by God in place of the covering of fig leaves they had made for themselves. Why? To show that without the shedding of blood, there is no forgiveness—release, letting go, deliverance—from sin. This is the inauguration of the sacrificial system—or better, the provision of covering—later given more fully in Leviticus. The way back to the sanctuary is past the cherub and the flaming sword. Who can go through that? A man cannot enter, so he leans his hand on the head of an animal, identifying with it, sending it as his representative, and in a sense it carries him through the knife and the fire where it ascends to the glory cloud of the presence. This act, and most especially the blood spilled, provides a covering for the one who would draw near to God. This whole system is given by God as the way of approach. It is his provision, as is emphatically demonstrated by Jesus in his own death.

This helps (partly) explain why Abel’s offering was accepted and Cain’s wasn’t, and why Abel was a shepherd at all at a time when people didn’t eat meat (Gen 1:29-30, cf. Gen. 9:3). The fruit of the ground is a fine tribute or thanksgiving offering, but not an appropriate covering for the sin crouching at the door, trying to get mastery over him.

From Glory to Glory

Adam and Eve lived in a walled garden, with one entrance on the east side. It was a high place, for out of it flowed the river of Eden in four heads. These rivers hint at traffic with the lands beyond, with abundant food in the garden and gold and precious stones downstream. As the high place, it was the meeting place of God and man, the first sanctuary. Adam was placed in the garden to serve—to tend and cultivate—and also to keep—to guard the way to the Tree of Life and the Word. The fall removed this foretaste of glory, exiling man from the direct presence of God. An angel and a flaming sword were set where Adam should have been. And there was evening and there was morning.

For centuries, men had no sanctuary. The Sons of God, the godly line of Seth, walked with God. The prophet Enoch called the wicked to repentance. But there was no place where men could approach God, no place where God caused his name to dwell with his people. God gave Noah plans for the ark, a temporary sanctuary from the coming flood. The world was taken apart and a new world was built. And there was evening and there was morning.

The patriarchs still operated at a far remove. Their sanctuaries were open-air affairs gathered around not flowing water but oases or wells dug in the wild land. Here Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob called or proclaimed the name of God—the Lord God, merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness, keeping steadfast love to the thousandth generation, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, but who will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children and the children’s children, to the third and the fourth generation. The people around recognized the blessing and wisdom of God on them, and many of those who believed were gathered into the household of the Hebrews. After the move to Egypt, the glory of the patriarchs was broken, hammered and flattened out so that it was no longer a blood dynasty ruling over the household, but one people advised and led by their elders. And there was evening and there was morning.

God, with his strong arm and outstretched hand brought his people up out of Egypt and showed Moses the heavenly pattern for a new sanctuary, the Tabernacle, the dwelling place of God with men, built from the spoils of Egypt. Now again they had a walled and guarded sanctuary, but only the house servants, the priests, could come near. The angel stepped aside and men once again took up the role of guarding the way. Any who would enter must pass through the knife and the fire. God lived in the midst of his people Israel, visibly manifest in the cloud and fire. I will be your God and you shall be my people. But the way of approach was still [mostly] barred. The water no longer had to be dug out of the ground but was collected above the bronze firmament in the courtyard. The near-bringings were washed with water from above.

In the judging of the judges, the people wandered from their God, casting a sidelong glance toward their neighbors and their neighbors’ gods, taking their yoke upon them and languishing under their hand. The High Priest and his sons were killed. The Tabernacle, the center of the world of the Hebrews, was dismantled, the tent in Shiloh, the ark in Kiriath-jearim, and the ephod with a wandering priest. And there was evening and there was morning.

God gave the kingdom to a shepherd warrior and showed him the pattern of the new glory. Your son shall build a house for my name. And so he did, with the spoil of David’s battles with the Egyptian Philistines. Solomon also traded the abundant food of the land for stone and timber floated down river. The house was glorious—no longer a skin and cloth-covered tent, but a solid house of stone and timber, gold, silver, and bronze, four times larger than the Tabernacle. Flowers, palm trees, and fruit were carved into the gold-covered walls; giant lilies wrapped in pomegranates adorned the entrance, all recalling the ancient garden sanctuary. The bronze firmament was expanded to hold a sea of water above, supported on the strong backs of the tribes of Israel. Stationary but wheeled water-chariots lined the courtyard, hinting at a flow of water from the sanctuary. It did not yet leave the courtyard. As the time of the kings went on, the glory of the temple became like a worn out garment, the gold and silver stripped and replaced with bronze. The kingdom fell apart, northern Israel carried away by Assyria and southern Judah by Babylon. And there was evening and there was morning.

Seventy years Jerusalem lay in ruins. Ezekiel’s vision of the restoration temple, or rather the heavenly pattern and spiritual reality behind it, was another increase in glory. Rather than just the one eastern entrance, huge gates opened east, north, and south, with palm trees carved in the jambs. The temple had the same dimensions as Solomon’s, with the same garden-themed carvings of palm trees and cherubim, but the surrounding courtyard was larger and was surrounded by another courtyard for the people. The inner and outer courts, and the whole city itself were all square, extending the holy place outward, making the whole temple mount holy. The city had three gates on each side, each named for the tribes of Israel. There was no bronze sea, and the water chariots had now become a river flowing out and growing deeper as it went. It made salt water fresh, drinkable, life-giving. The fish of the rivers and sea were to live by it. Fruit trees with leaves of healing grew on its banks. The water had indeed begun to flow. Daniel was the chief advisor to the king of Babylon, Nehemiah the cup-bearer to the king of Medo-Persia. Cyrus and Darius sent the Jews back to the land loaded with provisions to rebuild the temple and then the city. The outward glory of the Restoration temple was not as grand as that of Solomon, but the spiritual reality behind it, given in Ezekiel’s vision, was far more so. The life and influence of the sanctuary of God was beginning to flow outward toward the lands beyond. Synagogues grew up in nearly every city throughout the empire. In time this, too, waned. The Jews, not seeing the glory they had been given, lusted after the power and glory of Rome. They knew not the day of their visitation. And there was evening and there was morning.

Repent! The kingdom of Heaven is at hand. Jesus came not to restore the kingdom to Israel but to inaugurate a new and final kingdom and sanctuary. Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up again. The vision given to John in the Revelation of Jesus Christ of the Bride, the Church, the New Jerusalem is not merely a return to the garden sanctuary, but is the culmination, the wrapping up and gathering together of all the glory of the sanctuaries that have unfolded in history. It is a glorious garden city, foursquare and mind-bogglingly enormous, some 1500 miles to a side and walled all around. The tribe-of-Israel gates always stand open, allowing the faithful of the nations to enter. The city has no temple; there is no longer one place where God has chosen to cause his name to dwell, no more house of timber, stone, and metal, but a house of living stones. The people of God are built up to be the house of God. This is a mutual indwelling. The Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the sanctuary of the people. We are in Christ and Christ is in us. The bridal city is the city on the hill that gives light to the earth. The river of the water of life flows out from the throne in the midst of the city. Along the river grow trees of life with leaves of healing for the nations. The way to the tree of life is restored to men.

Thoughts on Pain and Suffering

How could a good God allow so much pain and suffering?

I wonder how often this is asked in earnest. It seems to be a trump card, a get-out-of-thinking question, one that is played as unanswerable. The typical answers are something like either God is good but is powerless to stop the bad things, or he is powerful enough but indifferent (or worse), or there is no God and all things are without meaning.

This begs the question though, are pain and suffering necessarily incompatible with the existence of a good God? Is there any place for pain and good to live together? We could start by looking at some cases where pain itself could actually be considered enjoyable. Eating spicy food, for example. This causes mild physical pain in the mouth but is often desirable. Hunger itself or thirst is a kind of pain, or discomfort at least, but without it could we approach a meal with zest and delight, or even gratitude? Exercise also causes pain, but is considered a good thing that benefits both bodily and mental health. A hard day’s work is difficult and painful and if not done grudgingly can be very rewarding. Ah, but I see I’m beginning to stray already from pain itself as desirable to working in spite of pain toward some good end. Still, the pain in these kinds of activities is not altogether unpleasant, and may even be how we know the thing is working properly.

Let us then imagine some alternatives. Perhaps the world and all things are just as they are, but we can’t feel pain, physical or mental. This immediately reveals itself as not good. If we could not feel pain we would destroy ourselves. We would be cut or burned or crushed or shot and carry on as if nothing of consequence had happened. This is the problem with leprosy or Hansen’s disease. Something as simple as an unnoticed blister can turn into a limb or life threatening infection. The ability to feel pain in this case is good and necessary, alerting or drawing attention to injury so something might possibly be done to help or fix it.

So why is there even the possibility of injury, disease, decay and the like? Another alternative could be that the world could have been such a place where pain and suffering were not possible, or we could have been built in such a way that we would be invulnerable to any hurt whatsoever. Maybe this would be better. We would have no fear of danger, hunger, or death. War would be ineffectual. Murder and  rape would be impossible.  Sounds good so far, but what about the equally human counters to these evils? Without even the possibility of hurt or injury where would be the opportunity for courage or bravery or daring? If we have no want, where is compassion and charity and kindness? If we know we cannot be hurt, where is prudence and self-control? Where would be endurance and patience without the chance to overcome trials? With the loss of difficulties and trials that bring pain and suffering, we lose also the opportunity to be virtuous. Would this be a cost worth paying?

Even if this cost is acceptable, this still leaves room for mental anguish. In our lives, the greatest and most devastating cause of suffering is typically not physical. People can survive and even thrive through very difficult things. Nearly irrecoverable suffering comes from malevolence, or worse still, infidelity or betrayal. This is world shattering. This cannot be. We must eliminate this possibility also. How? What could it mean that there is no possibility of betrayal or malevolence? As is manifestly obvious by looking at ourselves, alone or in society, now and throughout history, no external law can keep us in line. Even when, by our own standards, we know what good ought to be done and even when we want to do it, we do not always do so. We can be lazy and apathetic, even toward doing things that would benefit ourselves. We don’t exercise enough, or eat the way we know we should, or take our medicine, or sleep or wake when we should, or any number of other things we know we ought to do. How much less do we look out for the good of others? But maybe this is jumping too far ahead. Perhaps at this point, the concern should be just not harming others. Even without the ability to cause physical harm, we could (do) invent ten thousand ways to inflict mental anguish on one another. Picking, nagging, fretting, belittling, arousing suspicion, lying—any place we know our own vulnerability, we can (will) use it to exploit the same in others. This is the cost; this is what we would have to get rid of to remove the ability to harm one another—our self-awareness, our knowledge of our own weaknesses. As long as we have self-awareness, we have the knowledge and means of exploiting weaknesses in another.

This is not to say that pain and suffering are a necessary part of existence. So  much of it is caused by our own ignorance or poor decision making, or plain malevolence. But, so much of what is good in humans, what is true and noble and beautiful (and despite all the wickedness, there is tremendous good), is dependent on the possibility of choosing evil. If we didn’t have the option to do wrong, we wouldn’t really be doing good, only what we must. It isn’t the same thing. Doing good is knowing the difference between good and evil, rejecting the evil and choosing the good. Thus, Adam is given the possibility of eating the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. After Adam ate, God acknowledged he has become like us, knowing good and evil. God knows and chooses the good. This is precisely what we are to aim at. This is what it means to have the mind of Christ, to be remade in his image, to become the sons of God. The telos that God has for his children is to be like him, to know good and evil and to choose the good always. This is the true and good elimination of suffering, the wiping away of every tear.

Good and Evil and Sports

I have for a long time thought of the watching of competitive sports as mere idolatry. It may be idolatry or it may not, but I failed to realize there is more going on, and it has to do with the way God has structured the world and time as an unfolding story. At the most basic, it is the story of light swallowing up darkness, of good overcoming evil. We eat and drink this story every day. It is so much a part of who we are and how the world is made that we often don’t even notice. Every time we move into some unknown thing and overcome the it, every time we learn something, every time we enter a new situation and come back from it having changed, we are acting out this story. The world is a little less dark to us.

At a very basic level, this is what team sports is. When the players enter the field, they are entering as warriors into battle. They are superhuman (god-like) actors acting out the great drama of the struggle between Good and Evil. When our team (the good, of course) wins, the world is a little more full of light. But woe when the other team wins. Even the sun is darkened in our eyes. This also explains why people are so attached to their respective teams. In terms of the great drama, it makes a big difference which side wins. The same seems to be true of individual competitions as well. The lone hero-to-be faces a host of antagonists and emerges victorious, or is relegated to the ranks of the common man. More or less. None of these games are to the death, so they can play out the drama over again while millions watch and await the triumph of the good.

Their wickedness did not disturb the order of God’s providence

Why, then, should God not have created those who He foresaw would sin, since He was able to show in and by them both what their guilt merited, and what His grace bestowed, and  since, under His creating and disposing hand, even the perverse disorder of the wicked could not pervert the right order of things?

Augustine

A Kingdom that Cannot Be Shaken

Daniel chapters 2 and 7 both relate dreams that cover the same progression of kingdoms from different perspectives, and both serve to contrast the succession of fleeting manifestations of the City of Man with the solid, eternal City of God.

In chapter 2, Daniel interprets a dream that troubled Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon. The dream was of a great image, a giant metal man with a head of gold, chest and arms of silver, belly and thighs of bronze, and legs of iron. A stone not cut by human hands struck the image and crushed it all to pieces so that it blew away like chaff in the wind, and then the stone grew to be a mountain that filled the earth. Daniel tells Nebuchadnezzar that he and his kingdom are the head of gold and that after him would arise other kingdoms: a kingdom of silver, and one of bronze, and one of iron that would break in pieces and shatter all things. But after these, Daniel says, “the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that shall never be destroyed, nor shall the kingdom be left to another people. [This kingdom] shall break in pieces all these kingdoms and bring them to an end, and [this kingdom] shall stand forever.” This kingdom is the stone that grows to be a mountain that fills the earth.

Daniel 7 is a parallel passage, a dream that comes to Daniel and troubles him. He sees four beasts rise out of the sea: the first, a lion with the wings of an eagle to whom is given the mind of a man — this again is Nebuchadnezzar and Babylon; the second, a bear raised up on one side — the coming Medes and Persians; the third, a leopard with four heads — four stages of the Greek Empire; and fourth, a great iron beast that devours and breaks in pieces all things — Imperial Rome. He sees a court of judgment set up and books opened and the iron beast killed and all their dominion taken away. The he sees one like a son of man presented to the Ancient of Days and to him is given a kingdom and dominion that will not pass away and will not be destroyed.

This “one like a son of man” nearly jumps off the page as a reference to Christ, but it is explained in verse 18 that, “the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdom and possess the kingdom forever, forever and ever,” in verse 22, “judgment was given for the saints of the Most High, and the time came when the saints possessed the kingdom,” and again in verse 27, “the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them.” It is true that this is Christ, but it is the total Christ, the head and the body.

Paul, writing to the saints in Ephesus, says that we are blessed in Christ and adopted as sons; the saints are made sons of the Most High God. The church is both the “one like a son of man” who obtains an inheritance and the one who is given as a glorious inheritance to the Son. The power of God raised Christ “from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly places, far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and above every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come. And he put all things under his feet and gave him as head over all things to the church, which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all.” This is an amazing statement: the church, the body of Christ, is the fullness of Him who fills all in all. The total Christ, the head and body together, is the mountain kingdom that grows to fill the earth, a kingdom that cannot be shaken.

Heart of Flesh

Ezekiel 36 talks about the uncleanness of Israel, not just in the land but in the presence of all the nations to which God had driven them out. This uncleanness is not dirtiness but death, the death of empty idolatry, of exposed flesh, the death that Jesus says comes up from the inside, from the heart, and flows out to defile a person (Mat 15:1-20). They had defiled the land and the name of God, carrying His name in vain, profaning it among the nations. But God says that He will vindicate His holy name by gathering Israel again to her own land, cleansing her from her uncleanness, removing her heart of stone and giving her a new heart, a heart of flesh, and blessing her in the land with abundant fruitfulness. He will vindicate His name by restoring His covenant with His people.

About this new heart, God says, “I will put my Spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes and be careful to obey my rules.” The Word of God had been given to them, and this was their heart: statutes and rules written on stone tablets. But now we have the Word written in human flesh, the very Son of God incarnate, and the Spirit of God indwells us and causes us to walk uprightly. And this is what Paul is addressing in Galatians 3. How can we, who have Christ and His Spirit in us, return to the stone law? How can we expect to merit our own perfection? Can we make this stone heart alive? Life is given in Christ and we receive it through faith. Just as God established His covenant with Abraham, so He establishes His covenant with us through baptism. What was promised to him — that in him all the families of the earth would be blessed — is fulfilled in us. We put on Christ and in Him we are heirs.

For the Body

Exodus 3 and 4 recount Moses’s encounter with God at the burning bush. God tells Moses that He has heard the cry of His people and He knows their sufferings and that He has come down to deliver them from the Egyptians. He said to Moses, “‘Come, I will send you to Pharaoh that you may bring my people, the sons of Israel, out of Egypt.’” Moses understood the enormity of this—Go, gather up a nation of people who have been settled in this place for a few generations and have homes and families and who are being held as slaves under the Egyptians. Gather them up and bring them out here.

Moses said, Who am I? “Who am I that I should go to Pharaoh and bring the sons of Israel out of Egypt?” God answered, “But I will be with you.” God gave him a name to stand under, the authority of the name of Yahweh, and signs to authenticate his standing. He gave Moses his brother Aaron to be his mouth.  So Moses went back to Egypt as the messenger of Yahweh to tell Pharaoh that Israel is the son of God, the firstborn son of Yahweh, and He says, “let my son go.” When he went back to Egypt, he told all of this to the elders of Israel and showed them the signs, they knew that Yahweh had visited His people.

What God gave to Moses—authority, signs, the Word of God, the message of deliverance—was not given to Moses for his sake. These gifts weren’t for Moses to keep; the only benefit they were to him at all was in their service for the whole body. Paul talks in Romans 12 about presenting your bodies as a living sacrifice. He doesn’t say, “present your bodies as living sacrifices,” but rather, “a living sacrifice.” We are all members of one body. What we are given, we are not given just for our own benefit, but for the benefit of the body. He says that everyone should not “think of himself more highly than he ought to think.” This is not a call to some sort of manufactured self-effacing. He says instead, “think with sober judgment,” that is, think rightly; understand your place in the story and in the body. The same thought is expressed in Philippians 2 as, “in humility count others more significant than yourselves.“ We aren’t to think of ourselves above one another because we are all members of the same body. Romans 12 is a fantastic exhortation and encouragement toward this kind of thinking. “Let love be genuine. Abhor what is evil; hold fast to what is good. Love one another with brotherly affection. Outdo one another in showing honor.”

Covenant King

2 Samuel 7 is a passage we hear frequently. It is an important passage because it is God’s establishment of His covenant with David. The chapter is divided into two sections. The first section starts with the king sitting in his house and goes through the vision that God gives to Nathan the prophet. Yahweh had given David rest from all his enemies, so David decided to build a house for God. Yahweh came to Nathan that night and told him that He would build a house for David; that He would establish David’s son after him as king over His people forever and that the house of David and his kingdom would be made sure forever.

The second section opens with King David sitting before the ark of Yahweh. This is the only time in scripture that sitting is described as a posture of prayer, but it is fitting. This is David’s coronation prayer as the enthroned Servant-King. He prays in response to the word that God had given and is staggered that God would choose him and his house. He says, “You have spoken also of your servant’s house for a great while to come, and this is instruction for mankind, O Lord Yahweh!” God had already shown throughout Israel’s history that He is God and there is no other; that He both shatters nations and raises up a people for His own name. When He establishes His King and His Kingdom forever, it means that all kings and nations must bow to Him. “Kiss the son lest he be angry, and you perish in the way, for his wrath is quickly kindled. Blessed are all who take refuge in him.”

God’s promise to David that his offspring would be established after him included Solomon, who built the temple, the house of God. It included the whole Davidic line of kings, some of whom were great and godly men, and others who were scoundrels that Yahweh disciplined with the rod. The promise finds its apex in Jesus Christ, of whom, even before His conception, it was said that “He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.”

But it doesn’t end with Jesus receiving the kingdom alone. We are also included as heirs in this promise. In 2 Corinthians 6, Paul quotes from the Davidic covenant, but includes all of us in it, saying, “as God said… “I will be a father to you, and you shall be sons and daughters to me.” This is true of all the promises that God established with His people; what is true of Jesus is true of His bride. As Paul points out in Galatians 3, because Jesus is the singular seed of Abraham, we are all seeds of Abraham. Jesus is raised from the dead, so we have a sure hope that we will be raised with Him (1 Cor 15). Jesus is seated at the right hand of the Father, and we are seated at the right hand of the Father in Christ (Eph 2). Jesus is king and priest, so we are a nation of kings and priests (Rev 1). Jesus has all authority in heaven and on earth, and He sets us about the business of discipling the nations in His name (Mat 28). All things are His and He freely gives us all that He has (Rom 8).